As a general rule, it is not possible to store electrical energy. Therefore, there must be a stable balance between input and consumption at all times. A balance group consists of any number of feed-in (power stations) and withdrawal points (consumers) in a control area. Each balance group is responsible for ensuring that the balance of activities remains stable – balanced over all of its feed-in and withdrawal points, and taking into consideration scheduled deliveries from other balance groups where necessary. Any discrepancies that become apparent between injection and withdrawal rates are balanced out by the transmission system operators and invoiced to the centre responsible for the balance group.
Black start capability describes a block-unit power station’s ability to restart itself from a switched-off state, irrespective of the state of the electricity network. If a large-scale collapse of the electricity grid should occur, these power stations represent the first step towards restoring the electricity supply. The TSOs must ensure that there is a sufficient number of generating units available in their control area that have a black start capability.
Sections defined in the Federal Offshore Plan along the border between the EEZ and the German coastal waters, where cable routes are run through.
Grid connection systems, which have not yet been assigned a cluster site, start, for planning purposes, at a grid connection point on land and end at the so-called bundling point offshore. The bundling point is used as an end point to determine the length of the grid connection system in the preliminary planning-process.